By: Halona Augustine
The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has changed life as we know it. Stores are closed, many have lost their jobs and social distancing has become the new norm. In the midst of this chaos, COVID-19 has also affected the environment. Our changing lifestyles have had a profound impact on carbon emissions and water pollution. In a study conducted by Zhu Liu from the Department of Earth System Science at Tsinghua University in Beijing, it was shown that carbon emissions have decreased by 40% worldwide due to the absence of transportation alone. This is a significant decrease as countries take years to establish effective plans for lowering carbon emissions in the environment. Water pollution has also significantly decreased during quarantine as people were mostly in their houses. The most evident change is seen through the canals in Italy, as there is virtually no more pollution. These canals were polluted for years and are now crystal clear. Amidst the negative impact that COVID-19 has on the world, there is a silver lining through the few aspects of the environment that have improved during this time.
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). "Biggest carbon dioxide drop: Real-time data show COVID-19's massive impact on global emissions." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 October 2020. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201014082806.htm>.
By: Althea Ocomen
Who Was Ada Lovelace?
The girl of renowned worldwide writer Lord Byron, Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace — better known as "Ada Lovelace" — showed her gift for science at an early age. She interpreted an editorial on an invention by Charles Babbage and included her own comments. Because she presented numerous computer concepts, Lovelace is considered the first computer software engineer. She passed away on November 27, 1852.
Ada Lovelace, born as Augusta Ada Byron on December 10, 1815, was the only legitimate child of the celebrated writer Master George Gordon Byron. Lord Byron's marriage to Lovelace's mother, Lady Anne Isabella Milbanke Byron, was not a cheerful one. Lady Byron isolated herself from her husband weeks after their daughter was born. Some months afterwards, Master Byron left Britain, and Lovelace never saw her father again. He died in Greece when Ada was 8 years old.
Lovelace had an abnormal childhood for an aristocratic young lady within the mid-1800s. At her mother's request, tutors taught her science. From early on, Lovelace showed a talent for numbers and language. She received instruction from William Frend, a social reformer; William King, the family's doctor; and Mary Somerville, a Scottish astronomer, and mathematician. Somerville was one of the first ladies to be admitted into the Regal Astronomical Society.
Babbage and the Analytical Engine
Around the age of 17, Ada met Charles Babbage, a mathematician, and inventor. The pair got to be companions, and the much older Babbage served as a tutor to Lovelace. Through Babbage, Lovelace started studying advanced arithmetic with the University of London professor Augustus de Morgan.
Lovelace was fascinated by Babbage's ideas. Known as the father of the computer, he invented the difference engine, which was meant to perform mathematical calculations and equations. Lovelace got an opportunity to look at the machine before it was finished, and was captivated by it. Babbage also created plans for another device known as the analytical engine, designed to handle more complex calculations, which was a splendid innovation.
Lovelace was later asked to translate an article on Babbage's analytical engine that had been written by Italian engineer Luigi Federico Menabrea for a Swiss journal. She not only translated the original French text into English but also added her own thoughts and ideas on the development of the machine. Her notes ended up being three times longer than the original article. Her work was published in 1843, in an English science journal, which proved her brilliant mind and achievements. Lovelace used only the initials "A.A.L.," for Augusta Ada Lovelace, in the publication.
In her notes, Lovelace portrayed how codes might be created for the device to handle letters and symbols along with numbers. She moreover theorized a strategy for the engine to repeat a series of instructions, a process known as looping that computer programs utilize nowadays. Lovelace also offered up other forward-thinking concepts within the article. For her work, Lovelace is frequently considered to be the first computer programmer.
Lovelace's contributions to the field of computer science were not discovered until the 1950s. Her notes were reintroduced to the world by B.V. Bowden, who republished them in Faster Than Thought: A Symposium on Digital Computing Machines in 1953. Since then, Ada has received many posthumous honors for her work. In 1980, the U.S. The Department of Defense named a newly developed computer language "Ada," after Lovelace. Lovelace has been attributed for inspiring Alan Turing's work on the first modern day computers which have greatly made an impact on our current generation. Her legacy has opened opportunities and doors for women to take up a prestigious role in the STEM field.
By: Joy Dong
Neurofibromatosis Type 1, also referred to as NF1, was discovered in 1882 and named by Frederick von Recklinghausen.
Cafe-au-lait spots, neurofibromas, tibial bowing, plexiform neurofibromas, and axillary freckling are all symptoms of NF1. Cafe-au-lait spots are usually harmless and commonly known as birthmarks, but they can indicate NF1 or other genetic conditions if multiple appear on the skin. Tumors that grow on nerves inside the body are called neurofibromas, with plexiform neurofibromas arising from multiple nerve bundles. These symptoms both strongly indicate to doctors that a patient could have NF1. 10% of NF patients will also have anterolateral tibial bowing, which is just a variation of tibial bowing. Tibial bowing is the curvature of the tibia, a bone that is located in the lower portion of the leg. 50% of ALB patients are also diagnosed with neurofibromatosis. Lastly, axillary freckling, another symptom of NF1, is characterized by a large amount of dark freckles in the armpit area. The color comes as a result of an overproduction of melanin from the body.
Neurofibromatosis affects around one in 3,000 people in America. It can affect all minorities, ethinic groups, and genders.
Most people with NF1 are diagnosed at around four to eight years old. Doctors should check the family history of patients and do a complete physical exam to determine the diagnosis. Using a medical lamp, they check for cait-au-lait spots, a strong indicator of this disorder. Physicians may also do eye exams to try and detect Lisch nodules and/or cataracts. A wide variety of scans, such as X-rays, MRIs, and CT scans to find bone defects and tumors can be used as well. They also do genetic tests since NF1 is a genetic disorder that is mostly inherited.
Likelihood of Getting NF1:
Neurofibromatosis is caused by a gene mutation of the Neurofibromin 1 gene, found on the 17th chromosome. The defective gene can be either passed down from parent to child, or can occur randomly. If the parent has NF, the child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder, because it is an autosomal dominant disease. NF1 is classified as a single-gene disorder, not a chromosomal condition. This is because it only mutates one chromosome and it is not caused by a missing or changed gene.
Treatments and Cures:
Currently there is no cure for NF1, but doctors can manage and monitor symptoms. Surgery is used frequently to remove tumors from important tissue and organs in the body. If the tumors are cancerous, the patient may undergo chemotherapy or radiation. If the patient has ADHD or learning disabilities, which are fairly common, they can use IEP or other medications. To manage pain, an array of drugs can be prescribed. Research has shown that Neurofibromatosis Type 1 does not have any bearing on patients’ lives.
https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/neurofibromatosistype-1-nf1/ https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurger y/centers_clinics/neurofibromatosis/nf1/treatment-nf1.html https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/neurofibromatosis-type-1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurofibromatosis https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/neurofibr omatosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350495 https://nfcenter.wustl.edu/research/research-news/brain -tumors-occur-often-in-kids-with-common-genetic-syndr ome/